Beijing is the capital of PRC, which is the center of National politics, culture, transport, tourism and international exchanges. Located on north latitude 39°56', east 116°20'. The whole city makes up of 11 zones and 7 counties.
The modern Beijing has experienced about ten generation of operation, which had numerous illustrious Emperor City's sight and rich handsome cultural background, the world's largest imperial Palace and our Chinese largest temple of heaven, which is rarely seen in the Summer Palace of Royal garden, Great Wall, one of the world's eight major miracle, the largest tomb group -thirteen mausoleum and Homo erectus of Zhoukou store site had been listed by UNESCO as world cultural heritage.
To Beijing, what you see and feel is not only the ancient empire's majestic solemnity, heavy life, but also the modern city's trendy downtown, high-speed convenient. And the strong modern breath is blowing on your face when set foot in Beijing, with the 29th Olympic Games in 2008, Beijing will once again demonstrate her enchanting charisma in front of the whole world.
The Forbidden City is the world's largest surviving palace complex and covers 72 ha. It is a rectangle 961 metres (3,150 ft) from north to south and 753 metres (2,470 ft) from east to west. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms. The Forbidden City is surrounded by a 7.9 metres (26 ft) high city wall and a six-metre deep, 52 metres (170 ft) wide moat. The walls are 8.62 metres (28.3 ft) wide at the base, tapering to 6.66 metres (21.9 ft) at the top. These walls served as both defensive walls and retaining walls for the palace. The Forbidden City was designed to be the centre of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City.
1. The Hall of Supreme Harmony is the largest, and rises some 30 metres (98 ft) above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial centre of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is nine bays wide and five bays deep, the numbers 13 and 20 being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor. Set into the ceiling at the centre of the hall is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the \"Xuanyuan Mirror\". In the Ming Dynasty, the Emperor held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing Dynasty, as Emperors held court far more frequently, a less ceremonious location was used instead, and the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as coronations, investitures, and imperial weddings.
2. The Hall of Central Harmony is a smaller, square hall, one of the three main halls in the Hall of Supreme Harmony, used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies.
3. The Hall of Preserving Harmony, was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination.
4. The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. However, beginning from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation to the west, out of respect to the memory of the Kangxi Emperor. The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor\'s audience hall. A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon. Above the throne hangs a tablet reading \"Justice and Honour\" (Chinese: 正大光明; pinyin: zhèngdàguāngmíng).
5. The Hall of Union, which is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. Stored here are the twenty-five Imperial Seals of the Qing Dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items.
6. The Palace of Earthly Tranquility is a double-eaved building, 9 bays wide and 3 bays deep. In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing Dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the new Manchu rulers. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the Empress moved out of the Palace. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor\'s wedding night.
7. The Imperial Garden. Relatively small, and compact in design, the garden nevertheless contains several elaborate landscaping features. To the north of the garden is the Gate of Divine Might, the north gate of the palace.
The Great Wall at Badaling is located in Yanqing County, which is about 60 kilometers northwest of Beijing. It is widely known as the most representative section of the “Great Wall” from the Ming Dynasty. Well laid out with huge uniform bricks, the wall was built on the ridges of the mountains. Various beacon towers were erected at strategic points along the wall. Badaling is a place of strategic importance and its wall is high and sturdy. With its many beacon towers, the wall looks magnificent and best epitomizes traditional Chinese architecture.
Sitting at the highest point of the strategic pass leading to Beijing from the northwest, The Great Wall at Badaling consists of the main wall and several subordinate walls. It is flanked by steep mountains and popularly known as the “key to the northern gate”. Now 3741 meters of the Great Wall at Badaling and 21 beacon towers are open to visitors.
The Great Wall at Badaling was listed in the first group of major historic sites under state protection in 1961. In 1987 it was included in the \"World cultural Heritage List \". In 1991 the Great Wall at Badaling, was listed in the \"World cultural Heritage Certificate\" by the United States. In the same year it was selected as the best of the 40 best Chinese scenic spots. In 2001, it was among the first scenic spots to be awarded with a 4A rank and in 2002 it again represented the “Great Wall” to receive a Guinness World Record issued by the Guinness Headquarters in U.K..
Today, holding more than 30 both domestic and international cultural and sports activities every year, the Great Wall at Badaling has become an embodiment of the peace and friendship among the peoples. An International New-Year Climbing activity has been held for 9 years consecutively now, and has become one of the 8 world-famous New-Year outdoor activities. The Great Wall has also hosted such events as Pele’s soccer show, a concert by Japanese solo singer Saijo Hideki, magician Robert Gallup’s great escape and a second visit by Steven Hawking; the CCTV’s popular program “The Same Song” once held a major concert named “Witnessed by the Great Wall, Long Live the Love” on the wall…With their clear themes, these various brand-new activities are being watched by people all around the world and are exerting a great influence on the world.
The Great Wall at Badaling is also an important place for receiving foreign guests, the vistor numbers have by now surpassed 130 million. More than 420 foreign leaders and heads of state, including Nixon, Reagan, Mandela, Queen Elizabeth II, Mrs. Thatcher, George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin have at various times climbed the wall.